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Native American Gallery

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Native American Gallery

After major renovation the Native American Gallery reopened to the public September 1, 2010. Initially opened on October 20, 2000, as part of the capital expansion program started in 1991 the gallery was the sixth permanent installation devoted to the story of the American West showcasing the Museum’s permanent collection. The original implementation of the Native American Gallery was made possible through a generous grant from the late Robert T. Stuart, a businessman and philanthropist, and member of the Board of Trustees from 1997 until his death in 2001.

Initial funding from the Noble and Dogwood Foundations, and from the National Endowment of the Arts provided the catalyst for renovation of the gallery, which reopened after three months of work. Nearly 190 individual cultural items are now on display more than doubling the original installation. The gallery is divided into eleven unique interpretative themes showcasing the diversity of Native cultures and traditions.

More Information About the Gallery  

The beaded Lakota dress is a classic example of the continuity and adaptation that is central to Native American cultural expression. European traders introduced glass beads to various tribes as early as the 16th century. Glass beads, along with other commercial goods, gradually replaced older materials. The impressively large beaded yoke on the dress evolved during the reservation period of the late 1880s. The new, sedentary lifestyle of reservations presented beadworkers with abundant time to apply their talents.

The horse, reintroduced into the Americas by Europeans in the 16th century, brought radical change to the lives of Native people and it replaced older symbols as an important icon of power, wealth, and status.

Prior to the 1800s, the headdress was used by a relatively small number of tribes and was worn only by select warriors who had proven themselves worthy enough to wear it. By the 20th century the use of the feathered headdress as an important symbol of honor and identity had spread to numerous tribes across the Plains, Plateau, and Southwest.

Human Presence

Native artists render the human figure in a variety of ways and for numerous symbolic reasons. Early sculpted figures in stone and clay were created as representations of important individuals, or as deities who possessed a human likeness. The use of the hand icon dates back thousands of years and is symbolic of Native American presence. Lakota, as well as other tribes, produced pictorial calendar histories of individual or group experiences known as "winter counts." The approach to chronicling such histories varied from tribe to tribe. The individual images of people or events served as a type of visual record for a particular event by which that year was remembered. Tribal elders often assisted in deciding the events to be noted on the "winter count."

Views of the Universe

Early Hopewell and Anasazi cultures used the circle motif as a reference to the powerful Sun deity. Among Plains tribes the circle personifies the sacred medicine wheel. During earlier times, tribal villages were laid out in a circular plan. The cross often represents the four cardinal points and intermediate directions, and is frequently associated with the circle motif. Specific colors also are utilized to represent many facets of the universe.

The influence of Christianity upon Native American design can be readily seen in objects dating back hundreds of years. Simple silver crosses introduced by British entrepreneurs were traded to and worn by members of Eastern tribes during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In earlier times, Native artists occasionally decorated items with Christian symbols to appease reservation agents and local missionaries. Such symbolic reference also illustrates the blending of traditional and Christian beliefs by many Native people.

Abstract and Geometric Designs

Although appearing to be a random placement of lines and colors, abstract and geometric design elements are commonly derived from the natural world and conform to formal cultural expressions. Native artists produced painted or incised abstract motifs on rock walls thousands of years ago. Abstract motifs can range from very simple lines to complex mixtures of forms and shapes. In earlier times, designs were commonly derived from dreams, which served as an inspirational resource throughout life. Abstract designs on painted hides were created almost exclusively by women, while figurative images were produced by men.

Twentieth century Diné weaving designs center around specific communities that are commonly associated with specific localities such as Ganado, Two Grey Hills, and Teec Nos Pos. Many weaving patterns are developed and maintained by certain families. Such designs are passed down from grandmothers to mothers and daughters, and to aunts and nieces. It is common for weavers within a given community to glean ideas for new patterns or designs from one another.

Around 1910, weavers near the Teec Nos Pos trading post began producing rugs that integrated Oriental carpet motifs with indigenous Navajo designs. The results were weavings with very bold colors and vibrant geometric patterns. Although trading post operators, gallery owners, and individual buyers wield a certain amount of influence over contemporary weaving designs, Diné artists still retain a strong sense of cultural integrity and independence.

Flag Motifs

Since the arrival of the first Europeans, various tribes have formed alliances with and fought for the causes of different countries and factions. The flag motif replaced older war honor symbols on women's and men's clothing. Wives of noted warriors often decorated various clothing and ceremonial items with flag motifs intended to honor the husband's acts of bravery.

During the 19th century, Lakota artisans occasionally used flag motifs to signify the owner's act of counting coup. This was the ultimate display of bravery in which a warrior touched an enemy with his hand in combat. Native Americans have served valiantly in the armies of various countries and factions dating to the 1500s. During World War I, more than one-third of the eligible male Indian population served in the military. Their bravery and sacrifice have continued during World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and other conflicts.

Floral Patterns

Change is an integral part of Native cultural tradition and artistic expression. Long before the arrival of Europeans, interaction between ancient Native American cultures brought about changes in such things as belief, subsistence, and artistic expression. Floral designs spread from eastern and northern tribes to the more western inhabitants through the fur trade and the work of missionary groups. The result was a broad spectrum of artistic interpretation, from very simple to extremely complex patterns that varied between tribes and across geographic regions.

Certain floral design elements are fairly widespread among various tribes. The beaded "maple leaf" motif used by the Delaware is also a common motif utilized by Kiowa, Caddo and many other tribal artists. Such crossover designs have long existed in Native American art. However, the 19th century reservation system in which different tribes were placed in close proximity to one another, greatly increased this practice. For example during the early 20th century, the Rocky Boy Reservation in Montana became the center for designs that exhibit a unique composite of Great Lakes and Northern Plains style beadwork.

The Horse

There are varying beliefs among the different tribes on the origin of the horse that affects the way they refer to the animal. The Dakota term for horse is súnka wákan or "mysterious dog." The Blackfeet word is ponokámita or "elk dog." The Shawnee expression is m0shäwä or "elk." Native artists have depicted horses in carvings, drawings, paintings, and quill and beadwork since their first contact with the animal. Such horse images serve multiple functions including a record of personal history, a tribute to the animal itself, and an acknowledgment of blessings received.

Early Spanish explorers introduced both Paint and Appaloosa horses to the Americas. During the 1800s, many Plains and Plateau tribes selectively bred these spotted horses for their unique coloration. The horse is one of the most recurrent pictographic icons produced by Lakota artists between 1890 and 1920.

Animal Symbols

Native American depiction of animals encompasses a long history dating back thousands of years. It occupies a special place in many tribal traditions, customs, and beliefs. Among some tribes, sculptures of game animals are incorporated into important medicine rituals. The turtle plays a significant role in many tribal creation stories and is commonly incorporated into objects used for sacred rituals and religious ceremonies.

Birds, dragonflies, butterflies, and other insects serve as messengers between humans and the deities in many tribal beliefs. Their spiritual significance is exhibited in numerous art forms and decorative motifs. Cranes are a common feature on courtship flutes. During earlier times, a young unmarried male adhered to certain tribal rituals when trying to win over a prospective bride. The beautiful music coming from his flute was supposed to entice a possible mate.

Reptiles play an integral role in numerous traditions and beliefs. Some 2000 years ago, people of the Hopewell culture created elaborate carvings and mound structures of the serpent and snake as part of a religious movement associated with fertility. Tenth-century Hohokam people of the Southwest used images of the rattlesnake to decorate their stone bowls and pottery in recognition of the animal's powers. Ancient Native cultures from Florida to California also have portrayed the avanyu, or mythical plumed serpent, as a reference to water and the underworld.

Among many Plains tribes, the elk, and other game animals such as deer, are important and powerful symbols incorporated into a variety of beliefs, ceremonies, societies, and artistic expressions. For the Lakota, the elk is synonymous with love and courtship. Images of this animal, achieved during a dream or vision, play a significant role in the life of an unmarried individual. They believe the recipient of the image is given the supernatural powers of the creature. To dream of a bull elk is to acquire the special seductive powers of the animal.

Continuing Traditions

Today, in the United States alone, there are more than 500 different Native American tribes recognized within the framework of modern society. Each tribe maintains its own unique customs, beliefs, and oral histories. Art has been an integral part of Native cultures for thousands of years. Artistic expression provides a means of preserving the past, examining the present, and defining the future. The use of some of the ancient cultural symbols has ceased, while others continue to play an important tribal role. With the creation of each new object, contemporary artists preserve the spiritual and cultural values of their ancestors. This gallery celebrates both the legacy and the future of Native American artistic expression.

Selected Gallery Images  

Dress Lakota Dress Lakota (Sioux)
circa 1940
No. L2000.18
loan courtesy of the Margueritte Piers Foundation

The U-shaped design motif in the bottom center of the Lakota dress is intended to represent the turtle, a protective symbol for Lakota women. The motif is an adaptation from an earlier dress style in which a deer’s tail was applied for decoration. The tail’s placement was in the bottom center of the cape where the beaded U-shaped design is located.

Native American Church Lighter Sticks Tsistsistas Native American Church Lighter Sticks Tsistsistas (Cheyenne)
circa 1970
Acc. No. 96.27.1322
Arthur and Shifra Silberman Collection

The cross is not unique to Euro-American religion. Native American artists were producing variations of the cross long before the establishment of Christianity in North America. The Cheyenne lighter sticks exemplify the coalescing of traditional Native spiritual beliefs with Christianity. The Native American Church grew out of the Plains tribal religions during the late 1870s. Formally organized at the beginning of the 20th century, the Native American Church is the first Native religious movement based in part on western theological practices. Illustrated on one stick is a variation of the cross and Sacred Heart of Jesus symbol. On both sticks are additional images of objects important to the Peyote Religion--the crescent, ritual staff, peyote rattle and fan, and the water drum.

Purse Lakota Purse Lakota (Sioux)
circa 1905
Acc. No. 82.27.04

The 1880s marked a notable change in Lakota beadwork design. Traditional geometric patterns of rectangles, squares, triangles, and lines were augmented with elongated diamond shapes and pronged, decorative appendages as illustrated on the purse. The use of color was also greatly expanded during this period with green, yellow, and blue being preferred. Although appearing as a dominant color on these objects, pink beads were not considered first choice by many Lakota artists. The checkerboard pattern on the bottom of the moccasins is another uniquely Lakotan decorative motif that appeared around the end of the 19th century.

Bugle Lakota (Sioux) Bugle Lakota (Sioux)
circa 1920
Acc. No. L85.05
loan courtesy of Clinton and Julia Anderson

For two centuries prior to America’s independence, Spain, France, Holland, and England planted their flags in the "New World." Native artists turned these foreign flags and banners into design motifs used on baskets, weavings, quill and beadwork, and other items. The American flag became a popular decorative element during the late 19th century. Between 1890 and 1920, Lakota bead and quillworkers produces hundreds of different utilitarian and ceremonial items with this adopted symbol of courage and power. The motif became a popular design element on items sold to tourists, traded to business owners, and presented to government officials. The emblem of the Great Seal of the United States also became a common design element of the period.

Winter Count Teton Dakota Winter Count Teton Dakota
circa 1899
Acc. No. 92.19 gift courtesy of Mr. Forrest Bratley

This particular winter count was reproduced in the 1890s from an earlier one reportedly belonging to Swift Bear.

Woman’s "Friendship" Blanket Wazhazhe (Osage) by Anita Fields Woman’s "Friendship" Blanket Wazhazhe (Osage) by Anita Fields
September 2000
Acc. No. 2000.27

Anita Fields learned ribbonwork from Maudie Cheshewalla, who taught traditional Osage arts for several years at the tribal museum. Ribbonwork designs are cut into a layer of silk ribbon and turned under to expose the bottom layer of a contrasting colored ribbon. The strips are sewn together forming a repetitive pattern of reverse applique design. The hand motif is specifically associated with women’s blankets. The blankets are made for women and girls to wear during I -lon-Seka, an Osage ceremonial dance and family honor song. The blankets are also made to honor respected individuals during give aways and special occasions. The making and giving of the "Friendship" blankets are a rich spiritual gesture that strengthens and define one’s place and relationships within the Osage culture.

Gauntlets Natimiwiyiniwuk (Plains Cree, Rocky Boy Reservation) Gauntlets Natimiwiyiniwuk (Plains Cree, Rocky Boy Reservation)
circa 1940
Acc. No. 91.01.0956

Joe Grandee Collection The reservation system during the 19th century, in which different tribes were placed in close proximity to one another, created an environment that greatly increased the influence of inter-tribal artistic designs and techniques. During the early 20th century, the Rocky Boy Reservation in Montana became the center for designs that exhibit a unique composite of Great Lakes and Northern Plains style beadwork.

Honoring Hand Drum Northern Plains Probably Lakota (Sioux) Honoring Hand Drum Northern Plains Probably Lakota (Sioux)
circa 1890
Acc. No. 83.30.09

Among many Plains tribes, the elk and other game animals such as the deer are important and powerful symbols incorporated into a variety of beliefs, ceremonies, societies, and artistic expressions. For the Lakota, the elk is synonymous with love and courtship. Images of this animal, achieved during a dream or vision, play a significant role in the life of an unmarried individual. They believe that the recipient of the image is given the supernatural powers of the creature. To dream of a bull elk is to acquire the special seductive powers of the animal. Like the elk, the deer also plays a significant role in many tribal beliefs and customs. Various societies and ceremonies centered around the deer. Animal dreamer societies often include Buffalo Dreamers, Deer Dreamers, and Elk Dreamers. During ceremonies, members of various animal societies often enter mock duels in which the spiritual and physical powers of the animals are projected toward one another. As illustrated by the shield, images of animals continue to hold special meaning for contemporary Native artists.

Moccasins Lenape (Delaware) Moccasins Lenape (Delaware)
circa 1885
Acc. No. H.84.07

Gift courtesy of Harvey Bouto Certain floral design elements are fairly widespread among various tribes. Note the beaded "maple leaf" motif on the Delaware moccasins and its similar application on the Cree gauntlets. The maple leaf is also a common motif utilized by Kiowa and Caddo artists. Such cross over designs have long existed in Native American art.

Tobacco Bag Lakota (Sioux) Tobacco Bag Lakota (Sioux)
circa 1920
Acc. No. 83.30.01

The paint horse image seen on this bag is reminiscent of those illustrated on early hide paintings and later ledger drawings. The horse represented on the bag is probably a Paint. Early Spanish explorers introduced both Paint and Appaloosa horses to the Americas. During the 1800s, many Plains and Plateau tribes selectively bred these spotted horses for their unique coloration. The horse is one of the most recurrent pictographic icons produced by Lakota artists between 1890 and 1920. On the opposite side of the bag is the image of a mounted warrior with a long flowing headdress. He rides a dark blue Paint horse with an American flag tied to its tail.

Suggested Readings & Links  

Native American Culture and History

E77.N352 1993 Ballantine, Ian. The Native Americans: An Illustrated History. 1st ed. Atlanta: Turner Pub., [1993].

E77.4.B77 1997 Bruchac, Joseph and Morin, Paul. Lasting Echoes: An Oral History of Native American People. San Diego: Silver Whistle, [1997].

E99.S213C37 Chapman, Kenneth Milton and Harlow, Francis Harvey. Pottery of San Ildefonso Pueblo. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, [1970].

E78.S7D28 Dale, Edward Everett. Indians of the Southwest: A Century of Development Under the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, [1949].

E99.P9D54 1994 Dillingham, Rick. Fourteen Families in Pueblo Pottery. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, [1994].

E98.T35D62 Dockstader, Frederick J. Weaving Arts of the North American Indian. 1st ed. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, [1978].

E99.O9 B43 Feest, Christian F. Beadwork & Textiles of the Ottawa. Harbor Springs, MI: Harbor Springs Historical Commission, [1984].

E99.M25F47 1995 Fernald, Mary and Stoeppelmann, Janet. Dirt for Making Things. Flagstaff: Northland Publishing Company, [1995].

E77.4.G76 1996 Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. Native Americans: Enduring Culture & Traditions. New York: Metro Books, [1996].

E78.S7H39 1996 Hayes, Allan and Blom, John. Southwestern Pottery: Anasazi to Zuni. Flagstaff: Northland Publishing Company, [1996].

E99.N3H42 1990 Hedlund, Ann Lane and Leonard, Diana. Beyond the Loom: Keys to Understanding Early Southwestern Weaving. Boulder: Johnson Books, [1990].

E98.B46H8 1996 Hunt, W. Ben and Burshears, J. F. American Indian Beadwork. New York: Simon & Schuster, [1996].

E99.N3J33 James, H. L. Posts and Rugs: The Story of Navajo Rugs and their Homes. Globe: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, [1977].

E77.J64 1997 Johnston, Franklin Robert. The Lost Field Notes of Franklin R. Johnston's Life and Work Among the American Indians. Cobb, CA: First Glance Books, [1997].

E99.S213M3746 1995 Kreischer, Elsie Karr and Sinnock, Roberta. Maria Montoya Martinez, Master Potter. privately printed, [1995].

E98.P8M28 Marriott, Alice Lee. Maria, the Potter of San Ildefonso. 1st ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, [1948].

McQueen, John and Rossbach, Ed. John McQueen: The Language of Containment. Washington University Press, [1991].

E98.B3N48 Newman, Sandra Corrie. Indian Basket Weaving: How to Weave Pomo, Yurok, Pima, and Navajo Baskets. Flagstaff: Northland Press, [1974].

E51.N42 v.11 1975 Orchard, William C. Beads and Beadwork of the American Indians: A Study Based on Specimens in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. 2nd ed. New York: The Museum, [1975].

E99.H7P38 1994 Patterson, Alex and Keam, Thomas V. Hopi Pottery Symbols. Boulder: Johnson Books, [1994].

E99.S213M377 Peterson, Susan. The Living Tradition of Maria Martinez. 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row Publishing Co., [1977].

E98.P8P37 1997 Peterson, Susan. Pottery by American Indian Women: The Legacy of Generations. New York: Abbeville Press, [1997].

E99.N3R593 1987 Rodee, Marian E. Weaving of the Southwest: From the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. West Chester: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., [1987].

E99.N3R59 1995 Rodee, Marian E. One Hundred Years of Navajo Rugs. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, [1995].

TT919.7.N62S267 1998 Roller, Toni. Indian Pottery. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press, [1997].

NK3650.S35 1995 Salkeld, Stefani. And the Bead Goes On. San Diego: San Diego Museum of Man, [1995].

E99.H7T25 1996 Teiwes, Helga. Hopi Basket Weaving: Artistry in Natural Fibers. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, [1996].

E77.N352 1993 Thomas, David Hurst and Ballantine, Ian. Native Americans: An Illustrated History. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, Inc., [1993].

E61.F56 1992 Time-Life Books. The First Americans. New York: Time-Life Books, [1992].

E93.V784 Viola, Herman J. Diplomats in Buckskins: A History of Indian Delegations in Washington City. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [1981].

E51.N42 vol. 16 Wildschut, William and Ewers, John Canfield. Crow Indian Beadwork: a Descriptive and Historical Study. New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, [1959].

E77.4.W66 1997 Wood, Marion and Cucchiarini, Ferruccio. The World of Native Americans. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, [1997].

Juvenile Reading Materials on Native Americans

E99.M87A75 1991 Armitage, Peter. The Innu (the Montagnais-Naskapi). New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1991].

E99.H7B66 1994 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Hopi. New York: Chelsea House, [1994].

E99.H9B66 1989 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Huron. New York: Chelsea House, [1989].

E99.E7B685 1995 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Inuit. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1995].

E99.M4B66 1997 Bonvillain, Nancy. Native American Medicine. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, [1997].

E98.R3B65 1995 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. Native American Religion. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1996].

E99.S23B65 1995 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Sac and Fox. New York: Chelsea House, [1995].

E99.S22B66 1997 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Santee Sioux. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, [1997].

E99.T34B66 1994 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Teton Sioux. New York: Chelsea House, [1994].

E99.Z9B66 1995 Bonvillain, Nancy and Porter, Frank W. The Zuni. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1995].

E99.M76B74 1999 Brody, J. J. and Bacchin, Giorgio. A Day with a Mimbres. Minneapolis: Runestone Press, [1999].

E99.P8C547 1987 Clifton, James A. and Porter, Frank W. The Potawatomi. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1987].

E185.925.C65 1993 Cox, Clinton. The Forgotten Heroes: The Story of the Buffalo Soldiers. New York: Scholastic, [1993].

E58.4.D4 1997 De Angelis, Therese. Native Americans and the Spanish. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, [1997].

E99.C91D5 1993 Dial, Adolf L. The Lumbee. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1993].

E99.P6D63 1989 Dobyns, Henry F. The Pima-Maricopa. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1989].

E99.A6D64 1989 Doherty, Craig A. and Doherty, Katherine M. Apaches and Navajos. 1st pbk ed. New York: Franklin Watts, [1991,1989].

E99.S4D73 1997 Dramer, Kim and Porter, Frank W. The Shoshone. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, [1997].

E99.A4 Fox, Vivian. The Winding Trail: The Alabama-Coushatta Indians of Texas. 1st ed. Austin, TX: Eakin Press, [1983].

E99.O3C72214 1996 Freedman, Russell and Bad Heart Bull, Amos. The Life and Death of Crazy Horse. New York: Holiday House, [1996].

E78.M82F74 1992 Freedman, Russell and Bodmer, Karl. An Indian Winter. New York: Holiday House, [1992].

Lovell Studio Exhibit / E9 Fronval, George and DuBois, Daniel. Indian Signals and Sign Language. New York: Bonanza Books, [1985].

E98.A7G56 Glubok, Shirley. The Art of the Woodland Indians. New York: Macmillan, [1976].

E99.C92H693 1997 Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane. Buffalo Days. New York: Holiday House, [1997].

E99.S35H83 1995 Hubbard-Brown, Janet. The Shawnee. New York: Chelsea House, [1995].

GT617.W47K35 1999 Kalman, Bobbie. Bandannas, Chaps, and Ten-gallon Hats. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company, [1999].

F799.K35 1997 Kalman, Bobbie and Nickles, Greg. Spanish Missions. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1997].

E98.R28K37 1986 Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Atheneum, [1986].

E99.T35K44 1998 Keegan, Marcia. Pueblo Girls: Growing up in Two Worlds. 1st ed. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers, [1999].

E98.M6K46 1996 Klots, Steve. Native Americans and Christianity. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House Publishers, [1997].

E99.A6L33 1990 Lacapa, Michael. The Flute Player: An Apache Folktale. 1st ed. Flagstaff: Northland Publishing Company, [1990].

E99.S54L33 1995 Lacey, Theresa Jensen. The Blackfeet. New York: Chelsea House, [1995].

E99.P3L33 1996 Lacey, Theresa Jensen and Porter, Frank W. The Pawnee. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1996].

E99.P9L38 1998 Lavender, David Sievert. Mother Earth, Father Sky: Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest. New York: Holiday House, [1998].

E99.D1G77 1994 Matthaei, Gay and Cvijanovic, Adam. The Ledgerbook of Thomas Blue Eagle. Charlottesville, VA: Thomasson-Grant, [1994].

E98.F6S74 1997 Max, Jill and Annesley, Robert. Spider Spins a Story: Fourteen Legends from Native America. Flagstaff: Northland Publishing Company, [1997].

E78.G73P6 1971 Powers, William K. Indians of the Southern Plains. New York: Putnam, [1971].

E99.C85R65 1989 Rollings, Willard H. The Comanche. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1989].

E99.C5S645 1996 Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk and Himler, Ronald. The Cherokees. New York: Holiday House, [1996].

E99.C53S63 1996 Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk and Himler, Ronald. The Cheyennes. New York: Holiday House, [1996].

E99.T52S7 Steiner, Stan. The Tiguas: The Lost Tribe of City Indians. New York: Crowell-Collier Press, [1972].

F592.U.S123T56 1997 Thomasma, Kenneth and Talbot, Agnes Vincen. The Truth about Sacajawea. Jackson, WY: Grandview Pub. Co., [1997].

F1435.T8 1990 Trout, Lawana and Porter, Frank W. The Maya. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, [1991].

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