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Introduction

Scope & Content Note

Subject Terms

Processing Information

Copyright

Restrictions on Access

Preferred Citation

Container List

Series

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Guide to the George A. Addison Photographs and Tax Document

George A. AddisonGeorge A. Addison Photographs and Tax Document, circa 1890-1907
76 photographs and 1 document
0.6 cubic feet (1 small box, 1 photo binder box)
Location: 0315
Collection #: 066
Accession #: 2004.110.1

Introduction
Photographs from the studio of Texas and Oklahoma Territory photographer George A. Addison, consisting primarily of portraits of American Indians from the Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory area. Notable persons pictured in the collection include Geronimo and Quanah Parker. Images of Native American lifeways and material culture and a small number of photographs documenting white settler life at the end of the 19th century are also included.

Biography
George A. Addison was a photographer who operated studios in Texas and Oklahoma Territory from the early 1880s through at least the first decade of the 20th century. He operated studios in Taylor and Georgetown near Austin, Texas; Nocona in northern Texas; Wheeler County in the Texas Panhandle; and, from 1890 to 1895, in the Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory area. In addition to the usual studio work, the collection shows that he also photographed landscapes and other outdoor scenes.

Source
Mautz, Carl. Biographies of Western Photographers. Nevada City, CA: Carl Mautz Publishing, 1997.

Scope & Content Note  

The collection is arranged in three series, George A. Addison, Native Americans, and Settler Life.

Virtually none of the 76 mounted photographs that comprise this collection can be dated with certainty. The bulk of the collection consists of photographs of American Indians that were probably taken during Addison's time in the Fort Sill area (1890-1895), but other images are copy prints or are otherwise not specifically dateable. Photographs that cannot be specifically dated have been dated as circa 1895, which covers Addison’s time at Fort Sill and his period of greatest activity as a photographer. Some photographs exist in multiples and others have significant damage to the emulsion or mount, including one Geronimo image that has been torn in half. In addition to this finding aid, more detailed information about each photograph is available in the Research Center database.

Series 1: George A. Addison (ca. 1895-1907)
Consists of two items related to Addison and his career, a 1907 Wheeler County, Texas Occupation Tax Receipt issued to Addison in Mobeetie, Texas, the only non-photographic item in the collection, and a portrait photograph of Addison.

Series 2: Native Americans (ca. 1895-1897)
Consists of 66 cabinet card and other mounted photographs of American Indians, the majority probably taken by Addison while he was in the Fort Sill area. The bulk of the photographs are studio portraits of children, men, women, and groups, but the series also includes six photographs of the Fort Sill Indian School. Significant individuals pictured include multiple images of Geronimo and Quanah Parker as well as Gaul, Kicking Bird, Lone Wolf, and Toshaway. Included are images that are known copy prints of other photographer’s work including images by Charles Bell, Alexander Gardner, William E. Irwin, and William S. Soule. These images illustrate the common 19th century practice of producing copy prints of other photographer’s images for the resale market. Only 15 images have Addison mounts, but it is probable that most of the Native American photographs with plain mounts are also Addison images. Most of the photographs were not originally captioned, but have been given descriptive captions in the container list; when a photograph is captioned but needs additional description this has been indicated in the container list by square brackets.

Almost 20 of the Indian photographs have notations by Addison’s daughter Laura written in fountain pen on a separate piece of paper, then taped to the reverse of the photo mount. Based on the consistent appearance of these notations and internal evidence referring to the existence of Laura’s children it is probable that the notes date from the 1920s or 1930s, rather than from when the photographs were printed. The notes variously identify persons pictured in the photographs, including members of the Addison family; make (sometimes derogatory) comments about the appearance and dress of the persons pictured; or comment on the significance of the image, for example, one of the Geronimo photographs taken by her father.

Collection images documenting Native American history, lifeways, and material culture include a photograph of what Laura Addison terms an "Indian camp meeting," which seems to be some sort of religious revival attended by both Indian and white people including members of the Addison family who are identified in the photograph; the tree bough shelter where the meeting was held can be seen in the background of the photograph. Other notable images include a photograph that shows, according to Laura Addison’s caption, Indians obtaining the last government rations to be distributed at Fort Sill and nice shot of a large Southern Plains Indian social dance. Also included are images of tipis, Wichita Indian grass homes, and a faded copy print showing two tree interments.

The bulk of the Native American Series, and the bulk of the collection as a whole, consists of 53 portrait photographs of American Indian children, men, women, and groups. Most of the images are formal studio portraits, but some are taken outdoors or in more informal settings. A small number of portraits have been tinted, some with greater success than others. Some of the persons pictured are named and famous like Geronimo and Quanah Parker, some are named but not well known, but the majority are unknown persons. The many examples of traditional clothing, jewelry, hairstyles, headgear, and material culture objects shown in the portrait photographs are collection highlights. Included are examples of fringed and beaded dresses, shawls, and sashes; women’s clothing decorated with elk teeth; otter fur hair wraps; feathered headdresses; cradleboards; feather fans; and necklaces. Other images include photographs of Quanah Parker in the living room and dining room of his home near Fort Sill, a wonderful photograph of six Indian women on horseback in traditional clothing, two of whom are holding umbrellas, and an interesting photograph of two Kiowa women with a crying baby in a cradleboard who are posed with a little barefooted white girl in a party dress.

Six images of the Fort Sill Indian School from the late 19th century are also part of this series. The school buildings and grounds, as well as the students, are shown in the photographs. Three of the images show the same view.

Series 3: Settler Life (ca. 1890-ca. 1905)
Series includes nine photographs that document aspects of white life and settlement at the turn of the 20th century. Included are three landscape photographs, two images of the Wichita Mountains near Fort Sill and an unidentified photograph of a grass or forest fire at night. Three photographs touch on aspects of frontier military life. There is a photograph of the popular lithograph Custer’s Last Fight, which was widely distributed by Anheuser-Busch, which also shows up in the collection photograph of Quanah Parker in his living room. Two photographs apparently show scenes in the officer’s mess at Fort Sill. Two portrait photographs are included, one is a group photograph of three soldiers and four little girls, presumably a family portrait, the other was taken by Russell, Kansas photograph J. H. Allen and shows an unidentified young couple. Finally, there is a single photograph that is unidentified, but looks like it was taken in a town shortly after one of the Oklahoma land runs. The photograph shows a group of men in front of a large sign for a real estate office and there is what appears to be an outdoor bar set up behind the men.

Subject Terms  

Personal Names:
Addison, George A.
Addison, Laura
Gaul
Geronimo, 1829-1909
Kicking Bird
Lone Wolf
Parker, Quanah, 1845?-1911
Toshaway

Subject Headings:
Apache Indians-Oklahoma
Chiricahua Indians-Oklahoma
Comanche Indians-Oklahoma
Cradleboards
Fort Sill (Okla.)
Fort Sill Indian School
Group portraits
Hairstyles
Headgear
Indians of North America-Clothing
Indians of North America-Dwellings
Indians of North America-Jewelry
Indians of North America-Oklahoma
Kiowa Indians-Oklahoma
Photographers-Oklahoma
Photographers-Texas
Portrait photographs
Slaughtering and slaughter-houses
Tipis
Wichita Indians-Oklahoma

Processing Information  

The collection was purchased with funds provided by Martin C. Dickinson in May 2004 and processed by Jonathan Nelson in June 2004. Based on internal evidence in the collection, it is probable that this group of photographs from Addison’s studio passed to his daughter Laura after his death, eventually passing into the commercial market at a later date.

Ownership & Literary Rights  

The George A. Addison Photographs and Tax Document is the property of the Donald C. & Elizabeth M. Dickinson Research Center, National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum. Literary right, including copyright, belongs to the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum, with the exception of copyrighted artwork images and published literary works, which are the property of the respective copyright holders. It is the responsibility of the researcher, and his/her publisher, to obtain publishing permission from individuals pictured, relevant copyright holders, and the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum.

Restrictions on Access  

The collection is open for research. It is advisable for researchers to discuss their proposed research with staff prior to visiting the Center.

Preferred Citation  

George A. Addison Photographs and Tax Document, Box ##, Folder ##, Dickinson Research Center, National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Container List  

Series 1: George A. Addison, ca. 1895-1907
Box/Folder# Folder Title/Description
002/001 County Occupation Tax Receipt, Wheeler County, Texas, 1907 [2004.110.1.77]
002/002 Portrait of George A. Addison, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.59]
Series 2: Native Americans, ca. 1895-1897
Box/Folder# Folder Title/Description
History and Lifeways
002/003 Indian camp meeting, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.65]
001/001 Indian family butchering Indian Agency beef, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.71]
002/004 Last government rations issued to the Indians, Fort Sill, OT, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.63]
001/002 Southern Plains Indian social dance, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.33]
001/003 Two Indian tree interments, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.72]
Material Culture
001/004 Early winter homes [Two tipis], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.73]
001/005 Wichita Indians winter homes, grass homes, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.27]
Portraits
001/006 Children, Young Indian boy, forelock, buckskin clothing and crucifix, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.52]
001/007 Children, Young Indian boy, fringed buckskin clothes and leggings, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.32]
002/005 Children, Young Indian child poses with medal in her hand and coin necklace, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.19]
001/008 Groups, Apache family with grandmother, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.48]
001/009-010 Groups, Indian man with two young Indian women, ca. 1895 [2] [2004.110.1.40; 44]
001/011 Groups, Lucy Tah-wa-istah-ker-na-ker and Chah-tar-sy [Portrait of middle-aged Kiowa (?) couple], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.57]
002/006 Groups, Portrait of two young Indian women with shawls, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.25]
002/007 Groups, Quanah Parker and his wife entertain in their dining room, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.75]
001/012 Groups, Six young Indian women on horseback near Indian village at Fort Sill, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.62]
001/013 Groups, Studio portrait of two Kiowa (?) men with fur wraps and feathers, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.43]
001/014 Groups, Studio portrait of two young Indian boys in their best clothes, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.41]
001/015 Groups, Studio portrait of two young Indian girls in elaborate dresses and shawls, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.53]
002/008 Groups, Studio portrait of two young Indian women, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.11]
001/016 Groups, Two Kiowa women with cradleboard, crying baby, and little barefooted white girl in a dress, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.16]
002/009 Men, Arapaho [Indian man with rifle], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.08]
002/010 Men, Gaul, Sioux Chief, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.07]
001/017 Men, Geronimo at Fort Sill after capture, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.37]
002/011 Men, Geronimo, head and shoulders portrait, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.28]
002/012 Men, Geronimo [Portrait in European clothing and hat], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.23]
001/018-019 Men, Geronimo [Portrait in European clothing and hat], ca. 1895 [2] [2004.110.1.34; 36]
001/020 Men, Geronimo posed with headdress and medicine bonnet, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.26]
002/013 Men, Indian man with fringed clothing and fur hair wraps, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.14]
001/021 Men, Kicking Bird (Eagle), Kiowa Chief, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.03]
001/022 Men, Lone Wolf, Kiowa Chief, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.02]
002/014 Men, Oncpapa [Running Antelope, Hunkpapa Sioux], ca. 1895 [1]
001/023 Men, Portrait of Lower Yanktonai Sioux man, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.04]
001/024-025 Men, Quanah Parker, ca. 1895 [2] [2004.110.1.38; 39]
002/015 Men, Quanah Parker in his living room, near Fort Sill, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.17]
001/026 Men, Seated Indian man with feather fan and fur hair wraps, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.45]
002/026 Men, Seated Indian man with fur hair wraps and feather fan, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.13]
001/027 Men, Seated Indian man with fur hair wraps and feather fan, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.56]
001/028 Men, Seated Indian man with fur hair wraps and fur pelt studio prop, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.46]
001/029 Men, Standing Indian man with bow and arrow, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.47]
001/030 Men, Toshaway, Amauche [Comanche] Chief, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.01]
001/031 Men, White Wolf, a Comanche man, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.18]
001/032 Men, Winter dress [Young Comanche (?) man with Marlin rifle, fur hair wraps, horse with Western saddle], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.35]
002/018 Men, Young Indian man with fur hair wraps, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.20]
002/019 Women, Dorothy Kay-wah-kla [Indian woman with bead decorated clothing], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.15]
001/033 Women, Elderly Apache woman, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.49]
002/020 Women, Indian girl with elaborate dress, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.09]
002/021 Women, Indian woman with cross earrings, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.10]
001/034-035 Women, Seated young Indian woman with elk tooth decorated buckskin dress, ca. 1895 [2] [2004.110.1.51; 51]
002/022 Women, Young Indian woman in fringed buckskin dress, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.12]
002/023 Women, Young Indian woman in fringed buckskin dress, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.21]
001/036 Women, Young Indian woman with beaded and fringed dress, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.24]
002/024 Women, Young Indian woman with beaded sash, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.16]
001/037 Women, Young Indian woman with fringed shawl, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.22]
001/038 Women, Young Kiowa (?) woman in buckskin dress with elk tooth decoration, bow and arrow, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.42]
Schools
002/025-027 Ft. Sill Indian School, ca. 1895 [3] [2004.110.1.68; 69; 70]
002/028 Ft. Sill Indian School, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.76]
002/029 Ft. Sill Indian School, 1897 [1] [2004.110.1.67]
002/030 General view, Ft. Sill School, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.66]
Series 3: Settler Life, ca. 1890-ca. 1905
Box/Folder# Folder Title/Description
Landscapes
001/039 Forest or grass fire at night, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.31]
002/031 Mount Scott, 1902 [1] [2004.110.1.60]
002/032 Wichita Mountains north of Lawton, O. T., ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.30]
Military
002/033 Custer's Last Fight [Photograph of the lithograph "Custer's Last Fight"], ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.61]
002/034 Five men at dining table with female black servant, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.64]
002/035 Officer's Mess, Fort Sill, O. T., ca. 1895
Portraits
001/040 Group portrait of three young soldiers and four little girls, ca. 1905 [1] [2004.110.1.40]
001/041 Portrait of young Russell, Kansas couple, ca. 1890 [1] [2004.110.1.54]
Town Life
002/036 Group of men in front of stores and signs, ca. 1895 [1] [2004.110.1.29]
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